The MQTT protocol is based on the principle of publishing messages and subscribing to topics, or "pub/sub". Multiple clients connect to a broker and subscribe to topics that they are interested in. Clients also connect to the broker and publish messages to topics. Many clients may subscribe to the same topics and do with the information as they please. The broker and MQTT act as a simple, common interface for everything to connect to. This means that you if you have clients that dump subscribed messages to a database, to Twitter, Cosm or even a simple text file, then it becomes very simple to add new sensors or other data input to a database, Twitter or so on.
What can you build?